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Pirate Or Pirate Hunter? The Strange Adventures Of Captain Kidd

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Captain William Kidd died with a morbid distinction: he was one of those rare, unlucky people who had to be hanged twice.

The first time they strung him up, the rope broke. Afterward (according to witnesses) the crowd roared for him to be released. They said it was a sign from God. They said he must be innocent. The executioner disagreed. They strung him up again, checked and rechecked the knot. This time, he hung for good. The King had his lifeless body garroted above the River Thames for three years as a warning to would-be pirates.

Captain Kidd died alone and in shame.

But just a few years before, Kidd set sail from New York under the banner of the English king, as one of the richest and most respected men in the New World. What changed?

The story is one of greed, adventure, and betrayal.

Captain KiddShutterstock

Captain Kidd’s Mistake

Captain Kidd’s downfall began in New York City, in 1696.

The New York of those days was far from the metropolis we know now. The entire population was a generous 5,000, who subsisted on the meager trade which made its way to the port from more prestigious locales in England or Holland. It was a stinking, ramshackle settlement on the shores of the Atlantic—and the hub for a fair bit of piracy which the Governor, the Earl of Bellomont, allowed to continue in exchange for a cut.

Naturally, when a person was looking to find able-bodied crewmen for a dangerous and lucrative nautical adventure, New York was the place to go.

So it was that on July 4th, William Kidd made his way into the New York harbor aboard Adventure Galley—a magnificent, 32-gun warship, and quite possibly the finest boat that had ever made anchor there. His goal? To recruit sailors for a year-long trip halfway across the world, to chase down pirates (and French ships) under the legal permission of the English King and Governor Bellomont.

At the time, Kidd was a renowned privateer—meaning he operated as a contract agent of the English crown, subduing ships of rival nations as well as pirate vessels.

But when Kidd and his small group of loyal officers went about town, daring any man worth his salt to join the expedition, they were met with resounding disinterest.

The renowned sailors of New York were, for the most part, former and current pirates. Unsurprisingly, few were of a mind to join a government-sponsored trip. Why risk the attention of English authorities? Besides, piracy meant that the crew and the captain split 100% of the plunder. Privateers, meanwhile, split their bounties with countless government officials, as well as the king himself. Why should they bother?

What finally convinced these criminal sailors to join Kidd’s crew was, of course, money. While in harbor, Kidd managed to secure additional financial backing from Governor Bellomont. This allowed him to make a bold proposal to potential sailors: the crew of Adventure Galley would split 80% of the plunder taken.

With the pot now sweetened, 150 hardy sailors quickly joined up, and Captain Kidd sailed from New York to hunt pirates…with a crew of greedy, former pirates to aid him.

Captain KiddShutterstock

(Mis)adventure Galley

Things went wrong for Adventure Galley from the start.

On the voyage across the Atlantic to Madagascar, the crew underwent a horrific bout of cholera that killed almost a third of the men. The rest were left to deal with the pleasures of severe gastrointestinal distress, and an ominous leak in the ship’s hull.

When they reached their destination, between Madagascar and East Africa, things went from bad to worse. In months of trolling the known pirate haunt, they failed to spot a single vessel worth taking. By the late summer of 1697, the crew had begun to mumble about the failed leadership of Captain Kidd.

Kidd, meanwhile, found himself trapped between a rock and a hard place. The miserable crew were desperate to make the voyage profitable and were high on the possibility of turning to full-blown piracy. But Kidd was wary of English authorities; he’d promised his mission would be mindful of the law. Any attacks on legitimate vessels would be met with the force of the Royal Navy.

On October 30, 1967, tensions boiled over.

That morning, a Dutch ship was spotted on the horizon. It was the first they’d seen in weeks. The crew grew restless…

One man had the gall to speak up. William Moore was a ship’s gunner—hardly a high-level position. He was, though, an experienced pirate, and well-loved by the other members of the crew. He shouted to Kidd, for all to hear, that it was time to turn to piracy. Enraged, he demanded the captain take the Dutch ship.

Kidd refused, and with his leadership in question, he called Moore a dog. Moore replied, “If I am a lousy dog, you have made me so; you have brought me to ruin and many more.” This was an insult that Kidd could not tolerate. He responded by lifting a lead bucket and striking Moore in the head. The man’s skull fractured instantly. He died the next day.

Captain KiddWikimedia Commons

Controversial Piracy

What happened next is the subject of vigorous historical debate.

Before the year was out, rumors spread among ships on the Indian Ocean that Captain Kidd and Adventure Galley were turned pirate.

Later, at trial, the prosecution asserted that Kidd used piracy in an effort to placate his  unruly crew. They’d seen him murder a popular man, it was said, and were speaking openly of mutiny. Looking to secure his own position, Kidd allowed them to attack vessels with impunity.

What seems more likely, though, is that Kidd was simply careless. With a crew that was restless and desperate, he chose to tackle ships that could be argued were within his rights as a privateer—but which could also be considered illegal targets. The rumors of piracy, he felt, would not be enough to sink him. He had a reputation as a fair and honest man. And he still had powerful friends in England and New York.

He may have been right not to worry—until he took the Quedagh Merchant.

Captain KiddShutterstock

A Step Too Far About The Quedagh Merchant

The Quedagh Merchant was no ordinary ship.

At 400 tons, it was twice the size of Adventure Galley. It was also a merchant galley laden with the riches of an entire region—a veritable treasure trove of spices, gold, and silks. But, most importantly, it was under the command of an Englishman, who had contracted with the French East India Company.

It was easily the richest prize of Kidd’s career. It was also his last.

Soon after taking the larger ship, English captain or no, Kidd and his crew ditched the leaky, rotten remains of Adventure Galley and made port with the Quedagh Merchant (now renamed The Adventure Prize) near Madagascar. Almost immediately on arrival, the vast majority of Kidd’s crew abandoned him. They’d received a portion of the Merchant’s treasure—now they were making off like bandits.

This left Kidd in a predicament. He no longer had the men to pilot a grand ship like Quedagh Merchant…and he was beginning to receive reports from England that he’d been branded a traitor to the crown for taking a ship captained by an Englishman.

In a last-ditch effort to save his reputation, Kidd resolved to return to New York. The plan? To thrust himself on the mercy of New York’s Governor, who helped to provide the financial backing for Adventure Galley (and was also, in Kidd’s estimation, a friend). With that misguided optimism, Kidd traded the grand old Quedagh Merchant for a small and anonymous sloop and sailed to America—and his own doom.

Betrayal

Captain KiddWikimedia Commons

If Kidd planned on the mercy of friends to save him, he was sorely mistaken.

While Kidd and his men had been raiding around the Indian Ocean, Governor Bellomont was busy ingratiating himself further to the English authorities. He’d now taken a hardline stance against the rampant piracy in the New York area (never mind if he’d helped to encourage it).

So when the infamous and wanted Captain Kidd showed up in harbor, Bellomont seized the opportunity. Without delay, he had Kidd apprehended and imprisoned. Before the Captain would have even realized what was happening, he was transferred back to England and made to await trial in Newgate Prison, the most infamously pestilential institution in the country.

The Trial Of Captain Kidd

The subsequent trial was a media circus. Kidd’s connection to the English crown and the New World elite made a stir in London society. And the sensational charges (piracy, theft, murder!) quickly made Kidd a pariah. The many powerful men whom Kidd had presumed would speak to his sterling reputation were silent. To defend him would only sully their names.

To this day, historians disagree on the extent to which Kidd’s trial was fair. It seems clear that pertinent information was withheld, including Kidd’s experience as a notable privateer and the insubordination he experienced from his crew while on the open ocean. Meanwhile, supposed tales of Kidd’s savagery were embellished by witnesses with little-to-no credibility. Former crew members, looking for leniency in their own sentences, testified against their Captain without shame.

Thus the famous Captain Kidd met his end: reviled throughout the land as a swashbuckling scourge of the sea. Today, he’s remembered as one of the most notorious pirates to ever live. Whether or not he earned that reputation is a question that historians may never truly answer.

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History

Margaret and Roumania Peters: Forgotten Champions

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On the Court

Today, women tennis champions like Venus and Serena Williams get paid millions of dollars in endorsement deals, prize winnings, and celebrity appearances. But for a long time, the sport was not only an amateur pastime—leaving even its top athletes unable to make a living from their talent—it was also heavily segregated by race.


In America, black athletes were effectively barred from playing against white athletes, and thus barred from competing in the most publicized matches, until 1950—when Althea Gibson (a tennis player herself) competed against a white player. As a result, the world never saw what many of the top athletes of the 1930s and 1940s were truly capable of. In fact, it almost never saw them at all.

If it had, maybe we would more easily remember the great tennis sisters who came before Venus and Serena: Margaret and Roumania Peters.

Margaret and Roumania Peters: Forgotten Champions

Tennis Stars Are Born

Margaret Peters was born in 1915, and in 1917, her little sister Matilda Roumania followed. The two girls were almost inseparable growing up in the Georgetown area of Washington, DC, so when Margaret began playing tennis at around 10 years old, it was only natural that Roumania (as she was known) joined too.

Their beginnings were humble: the two girls often played in Rose Park, located near their house, on terrain that was hardly Wimbledon-worthy. As Roumania later recalled, the court had “sand, dirt, rocks, everything. We would have to get out there in the morning and pick up the rocks, and sweep the line and put some dry lime on there.”

Nonetheless, their hard work paid off, and soon they were playing with the American Tennis Association. As this was still a segregated, Jim Crow-era America, the ATA was an exclusively African American league. In 1936, Margaret and Roumania attended the annual ATA tournament; Roumania made it all the way up the brackets, losing only in the finals.

And that was just the beginning.

Rose Park Recreation Center – Washington, DC

Pete and Repeat

At that ATA tournament in 1936, both girls were scouted and then recruited as tennis players for Tuskegee University, a historically black college. At the time, Margaret was 21 years old and Roumania was only 19—and not yet finished high school. When they were both offered full, four-year scholarships, Margaret agreed to the deal only if she could wait until Roumania was old enough to enroll in Tuskegee. They entered the school together the next year.

Margaret and Roumania attended Tuskegee from 1937 to 1941, honing their skills and rising up in the ATA ranks. Most good athletes have signature moves, and the Peters sisters became particularly known for their slice serves, which used an underspin to keep the ball low, as well as their chop shots, which used a now-rare technique that returns a serve with an underspin.

Yet while both girls were talented singles players, they really shone together—earning them the nicknames “Pete” and “Repeat.” They won no less than 14 doubles titles in their tenure as world-class athletes, a record for the time. This understandably gained them fame, and the girls performed for luminaries like Gene Kelly, as well as members of the British royal family. Black theater owners would even show the Peters’ matches in cinemas.

But there was a big problem.

Amateur Hour

For all their fame, the Peters siblings were stymied by the state of both tennis and American culture in their prime years of the 1940s. For one, tennis only entered the professionally-oriented Open Era in 1968. Before this, players competing in most large tournaments had to be amateurs, and thus had to pay for their own equipment, transportation, and miscellaneous fees, all while getting no remuneration. For another, most of the prestige of tennis competition in the era was centered in whites-only clubs, leaving the Peters sisters out in the cold.

Photograph of Queen Elizabeth II presenting Althea Gibson with the Venus Rosewater Trophy at the 1957 Wimbledon Women’s Singles Championships.

Times were changing, but far too slowly. In the late 1940s, African American superstar Althea Gibson rocketed through the tennis world, and after persistent lobbying the powers that be caved and invited Gibson to the Nationals in 1950, effectively breaking segregation. Gibson, however, was a full decade younger than Roumania Peters; by the time tennis opened up, the Peters girls were no longer at their full strengths.

This is not to say that they finished their careers unaccomplished. Aside from their 14 ATA doubles titles, Roumania also won multiple singles titles on her own individual steam. In fact, the youngest Peters sister won one of those titles against none other than Gibson herself; Roumania is still the only African American woman to have ever defeated the Grand Slam champion.

In 1977, the Peters were rightly inducted into the Tuskegee Hall of Fame—but by then, life was much different for the sisters.

The Retired Life

With the odds stacked against them, Margaret and Roumania simply couldn’t support themselves on tennis alone, but this didn’t mean they floundered. The two sisters got masters degrees—Margaret actually got two—and became teachers later in life, with Roumania even teaching at Howard University. Margaret remained unmarried, but in 1957, Roumania wed a man named James Walker, giving birth to two children, Frances Della and James George.

In 2003, while Venus and Serena Williams were dominating tennis, Roumania died at the age of 86. Never one to be too far apart from her little sister, Margaret died a year later, in 2004.

Gone and Not Forgotten

Just after the peak of their athletic careers ended, the Peters witnessed some of the biggest upheavals of the 20th century, inside the tennis world and beyond—from the desegregation of the sport to the wholesale Civil Rights Movement. Though many may not remember their names today, Margaret and Roumania Peters were an essential foundation of this history—not just for women’s tennis or African American players, but for tennis as a whole.

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How Did Bob Marley Die?

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Jim Morrison. Kurt Cobain. Jimi Hendrix. Many talented musicians have died tragically young from the self-destructive habits of their superstar lifestyle. But while we often place reggae singer Bob Marley in the ranks of these rock gods gone too soon, few people know the truth about Marley’s early death. So how did Bob Marley die?


RIP Bob Marley

Bob Marley wasn’t necessarily known for fast and reckless living; a Rastafarian icon, Marley infused reggae music with his spiritual beliefs of gentle love and beautiful harmony. Yet on May 11, 1981, he died at just 36 years old. It felt sudden, but those who knew him had actually spent years preparing for his death.

That’s because back in 1977, the legendary singer was diagnosed with a malignant, and eventually fatal melanoma just underneath one of his toenails. When he died fewer than five years after his diagnosis, Marley was deeply mourned in both his home country of Jamaica and around the world.

His death was tragic, but there’s much more to the story than that.

Bob Marley FactsGetty Images

Death Comes for Marley

You see, many people believe that Marley could have been saved.

When the cancer was first diagnosed, Marley’s doctors suggested amputating the toe to give him a better chance for survival. However, the singer refused. Although this might seem irrational, he actually had a good reason: his religious beliefs prevented him from amputating, as Rastafarian tenets state that the body is a temple and that no part of it should be cut off.

Instead, Marley went with a less invasive but ultimately less effective procedure. He simply had the nail and nail bed removed with the help of a skin graft from his thigh. Ever the trooper, Marley and his band continued planning the world tour for the album Uprising, even after finding out about the cancer. The tour saw Marley reach new heights, playing his biggest-ever crowd in Milan and even playing the iconic Madison Square Garden in New York. For now, it seemed like the storm had passed.

But dark days were coming.

Bob Marley FactsGetty Images

Die Another Day

Near the end of the Uprising tour, Marley’s illness had taken a toll on his body, and it began to show. Just two days before a concert in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in September 1980, Marley suddenly collapsed while jogging in New York City’s Central Park. He was rushed to the hospital, where doctors performed a series of tests—and the results were devastating.

The tests revealed that the small melanoma from his toe had spread over the past three years, and was now infecting his brain. In an incredible feat, Marley still made it out to his scheduled Pennsylvania show, but this appearance would be the last concert of his world tour. His team canceled the rest of legs, and Marley—again partly in accordance with his religious beliefs—began to seek out alternative medicines to fight for his last scraps of life rather than submit to chemotherapy.

It was a radical, peaceful choice in keeping with his religion, but it did not delay his death.

Bob Marley FactsGetty Images

Dying Wish

Although Marley tried to keep the cancer at bay by eschewing certain food and drinks, after eight months it became clear that the end was near for the cultural icon. The alternative methods had not stymied the cancer. Bravely facing up to his fate, Marley made a heartbreaking decision to go back to Jamaica to live out his days.

But in a cruel twist of fate, he was denied the chance to die in his beloved homeland.

In May 1981, a very sick Marley was traveling home from Germany to Jamaica. In the middle of the flight, his vitals plummeted. When the plane landed in Miami, Florida, he was rushed to the hospital so doctors could try to save his life.

This time, however, there was no hope to be had: Bob Marley died in Cedars of Lebanon Hospital in Miami. Before he left this world, though, Marley had one last act to finish.

Bob Marley FactsGetty Images

Gone But Not Forgotten

Just before he died, with the melanoma rapidly spreading into his lungs and deeper into his brain, Marley gave his son Ziggy some final advice, father to son: “Money can’t buy life.” They were fitting words for a man who lived by his own harmonious principles and died on his own terms.

After his death, the world felt robbed of one of its brightest stars. There was one consolation: in the end, Marley made it to Jamaica. The country gave him a state funeral on May 21, 1981, following Rastafarian traditions for the ceremony. He was buried alongside his guitar in a chapel near where he was born.

During the funeral, Jamaica’s Prime Minister Edward Seaga gave the eulogy, saying that, “Bob Marley was never seen. He was an experience which left an indelible imprint with each encounter. Such a man cannot be erased from the mind. He is part of the collective consciousness of the nation.”

Bob Marley FactsShutterstock

To Die, to Sleep, Perchance to Dream

The story of how Bob Marley died is not one of partying and excess, but of a principled man unwilling to compromise for modern medicine. In many ways, this makes him an even more tragic figure than some of his fellow fallen rock stars. The melanoma that killed him at the age of 36 might have been managed and eventually defeated, had he only wanted it.

This, however, was not the way that Marley chose to go. Instead, he fought the cancer in his own way, and succumbed when it was his time. It was his life, and he chose how to leave it. Though he is still dearly missed, we have his many albums and inedible songs to help remember him by.

Rest in peace, Bob Marley.

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The King Who Fell To Earth: The Life And Mysterious Death Of Albert I Of Belgium

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Albert I was King of the Belgians at a very tumultuous time in the country’s history. He ruled through World War I and the Treaty of Versailles, and oversaw his nation’s reconstruction after the War ended. Despite such an eventful reign, it’s not this that he’s remembered for—it’s his sudden and tragic demise in a mountaineering accident. The circumstances surrounding his death immediately drew suspicion, leading to the rampant spread of rumors and conspiracy theories about the monarch’s tragic end. So what really happened to King Albert of Belgium on that fateful day?


A Death in the Family

Albert I was born on April 8, 1875, the grandson of the first King of the Belgians, Leopold I, and the nephew of the reigning king, Leopold II. At that point, he was third in the line of succession, following his father and his older brother, but when Albert was just 16, tragedy struck. His brother, Prince Baudouin, died after a bout of the flu. He was only 21 years old. Prince Baudouin’s sudden death sparked many rumors and conspiracy theories—notably, one that said the Prince had died in a situation remarkably similar to the mysterious suicide of Prince Rudolf of Austria just two years earlier.

With the death of his older brother, Albert found himself in a position where he would inevitably become King of the Belgians. His father, Prince Philippe, although next in line for the throne, was already 54 at the time of the Prince Baudouin’s death. Prince Philippe would go on to pass away in 1905, while his older brother Leopold II was still on the throne. When Leopold II died in 1909, it was time for Albert to take his place as King.

Albert I FactsWikimedia Commons
Prince Baudoin of Belgium

War Hero

By that time Albert had already married, to a Bavarian Duchess named Elisabeth, and the couple had had three children. The first few years of his reign went relatively smoothly, especially since his subjects regarded his stable home life favorably. In the final years of Leopold II’s reign, a public scandal had erupted over human rights abuses in the Congo, Belgium’s only colonial property. The Belgian government had wrested control of the colony from the monarch shortly before his death. Albert’s first few years of rule must have seemed like a fresh start after all the public disgrace that had been heaped on Leopold II over the episode. But all the goodwill in the world couldn’t make up for what would befall Albert—and Belgium itself—in the ensuing years.

At the outset of World War I, Belgium found itself stuck between Germany and France—and not just geographically. German forces demanded safe passage through to France, claiming that France planned to invade Belgium to get through to Germany anyway. Belgium refused Germany, leading the Germans to invade Belgium on August 3, 1914. As a result, Britain was then forced to declare war on Germany the next day.

Albert became commander of the Belgian Army and led numerous campaigns to drive the German forces back, but ultimately, his army wound up pushed back into a small area, where they remained entrenched for years. Albert fought alongside his men while his wife worked as a nurse, but the entire time, he tried to encourage other diplomats to negotiate peace with Germany, seeing the damage that the occupation was doing to his kingdom. The forces at war ignored his pleas, however, and eventually, Albert led the drive that liberated Belgium.

When the War ended, Albert and his family returned triumphantly to Brussels, where he spoke to his subjects about the future of the kingdom. He assisted in the Paris Peace Conference in April 1919, but his advice—to not punish Germany too harshly, in an attempt to quell future hostile behavior—was largely ignored, despite Belgium’s heavy losses during the War. He also did what he could to help rebuild his realm, working with the Belgian Ministry of Internal Affairs to create the King Albert Housing Fund for communities that had been destroyed, among other initiatives.

Shutterstock

Tragedy in the Mountains

Albert was known to have a strong interest in mountaineering, so when he asked his driver to pull over so that he could go for a short climb on the afternoon of February 17, 1934, it wasn’t seen as an unusual request—although later, everything that led up to that moment would come into question. He was climbing the Roche du Vieux Bon Dieu in a Namurois village called Marche-les-Dames. Albert’s driver watched him navigate the rocks from where they’d parked. The moment the King went out of sight was the last time that he was seen alive.

As minutes turned into hours, the driver knew something was wrong—after all, the King had an engagement in Brussels to get to that night. He went to the nearby village to ask for help, and soon enough, a search party was formed. At around 2 AM, one of the volunteers stumbled across Albert’s body. He looked to have died of a massive head wound. Albert’s involved role in WWI had made him a name around the world, and when news broke of his tragic death, both his subjects and the rest of the world mourned.

Albert I FactsShutterstock

Dark Rumors

Almost immediately after Albert’s death, whispers about foul play began to circulate. Yes, the king was aging—58 years old at the time he died—and his eyesight wasn’t perfect, but he was also an expert climber with many years of experience, including in solo climbs, under his belt. Many of those closest to him claimed that Albert had told them he planned to stop climbing—so why would he have undertaken such a dangerous climb alone?

One First World War hero-turned-fascist activist gave a speech in which he alleged that despite Albert’s actions during the war, the King’s push to negotiate peace during WWI had angered the wrong people, and that was the reason he’d been targeted for assassination. Others claimed that he must have been killed in another location and had his body dumped in the mountains as a convenient cover-up.

Beloved among his subjects, the area where Albert died became a place of pilgrimage, with many taking souvenirs from the site—rocks, leaves, other debris. A century later, one of these souvenirs would finally provide some insight into that fateful day, finally shutting down some of the more insidious conspiracy theories about the king’s death. A journalist found one souvenir hunter who had taken some blood-stained tree leaves from the site. He purchased the foliage, then had it sent for DNA testing. In 2016, the blood was compared to samples from some of Albert’s descendants, and it came back a match—meaning that the King had, in fact, died at the scene of the climbing accident.

Albert I of BelgiumShutterstock
Albert I in 1919

The King Who Fell to Earth

Albert was a beloved monarch who saw his subjects through one of the worst periods in history, and it was hard for many to accept that he’d died alone and helpless in such a sudden and violent way. Although the revelation provided by the DNA testing did settle some of the speculation surrounding Albert’s death, conspiracy theories are always more intriguing than a simple explanation, and people will believe what they want to believe—and so, sadly, Albert’s legacy will always be as much about the mysterious circumstances surrounding his tragic death as about his honorable actions as monarch.

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